Apart of space radiation, space environment makes other threats for spacecrafts computer systems. Our bodies are accommodated to The Earths environment, the same is with tools and devices invented by mankind, also computers. It is not sure that our toys will work the same on foreign environment.
In space, devices work in environment with very low pressure – vacuum environment. The elements of electric circuit of computer systems has to work similar during start or deorbitation (in atmosphere pressure) and during operating in open space. Coils, for example, discharge differently in atmosphere, than in vacuum. Capacitors have to have very good sealed dielectric to prevent change of theirs capacity. If circuit contains trapped gas (e.g. inside inaccurate solder), then system can be damaged in vacuum. Plastic elements may gas-out under vacuum, it may be important for integrated circuit encapsulated in plastic.
In The XVIII century William Watson observed discharge of electrified body placed in vacuum environment( actually in very rare gas ). Together with discharge process, emission of light was observed. The phenomenon was named “vacuum discharge”. It happen in pressure between 103 and 10-1 Pa and may cause effects on electrical instruments in ascending or returning phase of spacecraft vessel mission. When the vacuum reaches 10-2 Pa, then corona discharge is produced which can damage spacecrafts power supply systems.
Elements of spacecrafts computer systems usually are designed to work in thermal environment of The Earth, in range of temperature -15oC – 50oC. Work of semiconductors, capacitors, resistors depends on temperature, they are used in space but designed for The Earth environment. Thermal design has to ensure that spacecrafts equipment works in correct range of temperature.
Heating and cooling
Depends on its position spacecrafts are heating or cooling. When vessel is on sunny part of its orbit then it becomes hot, opposite when it is in dark (e.g in planets shadow) it becomes cold, but temperature of equipment must be stabilized in some range in both cases. Because of vacuum environment, thermal convection does not happen, and radiation heating is the only way to control spacecraft temperature. Space vessels take thermal energy directly from The Sun, from radiation of nearby planet and from The Sun radiation reflected from nearby planet. Spacecrafts release energy by radiation to deep space. Balance between taken and released energy is decisive for vessel temperature.
On LEO orbits density of atmosphere is very low, but not insignificant. The dominant species on altitude between 300km-900km is either atomic oxygen or helium. Oxygen is chemical very active, moreover its relative speed to vessel is big what makes aggressive environment and cause spacecrafts surface erosion, stable formations of oxide, scattering or reflection and chemiluminescent glow. All this effects change properties of materials and may irreversibly change they optical, mechanical, thermal or electrical characteristics.
Meteoroids, micro-meteoroids and ‘space junks’ travel in the area of spacecrafts operations. The mass of these elements vary from partial parts of gram (micro-meteoroids, dust of aluminum) to millions tons in case of large meteoroids. Debris collision with spacecraft may have dramatic consequences, even very small particles may cause large damage due to they very high speed. For example is assumed that particles with size greater than 1mm are threat for International Space Station. If probability of collision with ISS is less than one to 10000, then ISS is moved. Smaller particles (mass 10-3g – 10-9g) can penetrate protective coatings, may damage solar arrays, sensitive optical surface and detectors.
In 1978 Donald J. Kessler has publicized article “Collision Frequency of Artificial Satellites: The Creation of a Debris Belt”. The author has predicted that collisions between cataloged space debris will produce large amount of new debris. Some parts of the new debris would be large enough to be cataloged and would collide again, whats resulting in an exponential growth in the collision rate and debris population. This positive feedback loop in which debris-generating collisions would rendering parts of Earth orbit unusable. Nowadays planned LEO satellite constellations will contains a lot of spacecrafts: Starlink 12000, OneWeb 650, Blue Origin 32361 Such huge number of satellites will drastically increase probability of collisions and the fulfilment of the Kessler prophecy.
Computer systems and they peripherals may be overheated, overcooled, damaged by uncontrolled electric effects or physically destroyed by impact with external objects. It is important to allow to work system even if some of its parts failures of even completely destroyed.
- from Wikipedia ↵
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